MANUALI

FLIGHT MANUAL F104S
 

a cura di Emanuele Chiodi

 
 

APPENDIX

 

In questa sezione si trova una sintesi dei dati disponibili nell’appendice "Performance Data" inserita nel FLIGHT MANUAL.

Ogni parte nella quale Ŕ suddivisa (Takeoff, Climb, Range, ecc.) Ŕ introdotta da una "Table of Contents" con i titoli dei diagrammi disponibili. I dati estrapolati dai diagrammi vengono qui riportati in forma di tabella ed alcune variabili presenti nei diagrammi non vengono inserite per motivi di sintesi e semplicitÓ di lettura.

Qualora il visitatore fosse interessato a diagrammi specifici e a tabelle con differenti variabili da quelle fissate, Ŕ pregato richiederlo specificatamente: sarÓ cura dello staff renderle disponibili a breve nel sito.

All’interno di ogni PART troverete dei TITLE: la scrittura in CORSIVO indica la presenza della tabella corrispondente.

 

 PART 1 INTRODUCTION

PART 2 TAKEOFF

PART 3 CLIMB

PART 4 RANGE

PART 5 ENDURANCE

PART 6 MILES PER POUND DATA

PART 7 DESCENT

PART 8 LANDING

PART 9 COMBAT PERFORMANCE

PART 10 MISSION PLANNING

 

PART 1 INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration.

TITLE

SCOPE AN D ARRANGAMENT

 

SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS

 

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX

STORE DRAG INDEX AND LOADED GROSS WEIGHT

MACH NUMBER AND ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION

AIRSPEED AND ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION TO CALIBRATED AIRSPEED

AIRSPEED-MACH NUMBER CURVES

STANDARD ALTITUDE TABLE

STANDART UNITS CONVERSION

 

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX

La presente tabella riporta le possibili configurazioni sia nella versione intercettore che bombardiere. In essa verranno forniti anche i pesi in relazione ai carichi utilizzati e il drag index o indice di resistenza; quest’ultimo valore racchiude in un numero adimensionale gli effetti della resistenza e del peso sulle prestazioni aerodinamiche.

INTERCEPTOR

PROFILO.jpg (5106 byte)

ESTERNAL STORES MOUNTED

TAKE OFF WEIGHT (LBS)

DRAG INDEX

WING TIP

BL 104

BL 75

BL 22

CL

BL 22

BL 75

BL 104

WING TIP

   

TANK

             

TANK

24050

16.0

TANK

 

TANK

     

TANK

 

TANK

27200

68.0

AIM-9B

             

AIM-9B

21800

10.0

TANK

AIM-7E

         

AIM-7E

TANK

25300

48.0

TANK

AIM-9B

         

AIM-9B

TANK

24750

48.0

TANK

 

AIM-9B

     

AIM-9B

 

TANK

24600

42.0

TANK

AIM-7E

TANK

     

TANK

AIM-7E

TANK

28450

90.0

AIM-9B

AIM-7E

TANK

     

TANK

AIM-7E

AIM-9B

26200

84.0

AIM-9B

 

TANK

AIM-9B

 

AIM9B

TANK

 

AIM-9B

25550

88.0

TANK

AIM-7E

         

AIM-9B

TANK

25000

48.0

 

PART 2 TAKEOFF

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration

 

TITLE

TAKEOFF PLANNING AND CHARTS

REFUSAL SPEED

ACCELERATION CHECK DISTANCE

 

RUNWAY MARKING SYSTEM AND GO, NO-GO CONCEPT

RUNWAY WIND COMPONENT

TOTAL DISTANCE TO CLEAR A 50-FOOT OBTACLE

RUNWAY MARKING SYSTEM

TAKEOFF PLANNING PROBLEM AT LIGHT WEIGHT

TAKEOFF PLANNING PROBLEM AT HEAVY WEIGHT

 

TAKEOFF SPEED SCHEDULES

TAKEOFF GROUND RUN DISTANCE – MAXIMUM THRUST

REFUSAL SPEED – MAXIMUM THRUST

VELOCITY DURING TAKEOFF GROUND RUN – MAXIMUM THRUST

AIRSPEED ACCELERATION TOLERANCE

TAKEOFF DISTANCE OVER A 50-FOOT OBSTACLE - MAXIMUM THRUST

 

TAKEOFF GROUND RUN DISTANCE – MILITARY THRUST

REFUSAL SPEED – MILITARY THRUST

VELOCITY DURING TAKEOFF GROUND RUN – MILITARY THRUST

TAKEOFF DISTANCE OVER A 50-FOOT OBSTACLE – MILITARY THRUST

 

TAKEOFF SPEED SCHEDULES

In questo diagramma vengono ricavate le velocitÓ (KTS) di involo del velivolo in relazione al set di motore impiegato e la velocitÓ prevista di sorvolo dell’ostacolo alto 50 piedi.

All Configuration

Model: F104S

Engine:J79-GE-19

Fuel Grade: JP4

Fuel density: 6.5 lb/Gal

 

Takeoff Gross Weight (lbs)

Maximum Thrust

Military Thrust

Speed at 50-foot height

Auxiliary Inlet Doors open

Auxiliary Inlet Doors closed

17000

160

164

170

204

20000

174

178

185

220

22000

182

187

194

231

24000

190

195

202

241

26000

198

204

210

251

28000

206

210

218

260

 

TAKEOFF GROUND RUN DISTANCE

Il diagramma fornisce le distanze di decollo(IN PIEDI) in relazione ai possibili set di spinta utilizzabili.

Auxiliary inlet doors closed

Takeoff Flaps

All Configuration

Dry hard surface runway

No Wind

Airfield Altitude: Sea Level

Runway Slope:0%

TEMP ░C

GROSS WEIGHT

DISTANCE (FEET)

MAXIMUM THRUST

MILITARY THRUST

-10

18000

1500

2500

24000

2250

3900

26000

3200

5600

0

18000

1550

2700

24000

2400

4100

26000

3400

5900

10

18000

1700

2950

24000

2600

4500

26000

3700

6500

20

18000

1850

3250

24000

2850

4950

26000

4050

7150

30

18000

2050

3600

24000

3100

5500

26000

4450

8000

40

18000

2300

4000

24000

3400

6100

26000

5900

9000

 

PART 3 CLIMB

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration.

 

TITLE

CLIMB CONTROL CHARTS

COMBAT CEILING

OPTIMUM CRUISE ALTITUDE

 

TIME AND FUEL FOR ACCELERATION (TIME,DISTANCE AND FUEL REQUIRED FROM BRAKE RELEASE TO CLIMB SPEED

MAXIMUM THRUST COMBAT CEILING

MILITARY THRUST COMBAT CEILING

 

OPTIMUM CRUISE ALTITUDE

MAXIMUM THRUST CLIMB CONTROL

MILITARY THRUST CLIMB CONTROL

CLIMB SPEED SCHEDULES

Subsonic Maximum thrust climb control is presented at speed schedules of Mach .925, .90 and .85 ; Military thrust at speed schedules of Mach .90, .85, .80 and .75. Use of the climb speed schedule noted on each chart will provide the climb performance shown. However, in some cases it may be desiderable to initiate Military thrust climb at lower airspeeds, to clear local traffic patterns, ect., rather than to accelerate directly to the climb speed schedule. In such cases, initiate climb at the speed desired (such as afterburner-off speed) and hold constant IAS until the normal Mach number speed schedule is obtained. Then climb at constant Mach number until cruise altitude is reached. This alternate schedule does not decrease range appreciably.

Recommended Constant Mach Climb Speed

Maximum Thrust

Configuration Drag Index Mach No.
0-50 .925
50-100 .900
100-160 .850

 

Military Thrust

Configuration Drag Index Mach No.
0-30 .90
30-60 .85
60-120 .80
120-160 .75

TIME,DISTANCE AND FUEL REQUIRED FROM BRAKE RELEASE TO CLIMB SPEED

La seguente tabella fornisce dati relativi a tempi, distanze e consumi richiesti dal rilascio dei freni in pista al raggiungimento della velocitÓ prescelta per effettuare la prima parte della salita .E’ stata scelta nel caso specifico una velocitÓ di 400 KIAS o Mach 0.61, ovvero quella normalmente impiegata nelle missioni addestrative.

MODEL: F-104S

ENGINE:J79-GE-19

FUEL GRADE: JP-4

FUEL DENSITY: 6.5 lb/Gal

MAXIMUM THRUST

ALTITUDE AIRFIELD: SEA LEVEL

ACCELERATION TO 400 KIAS OR Mach 0.61 (Climb Speed)

TEMP ░C

GROSS WEIGHT (lbs)

TIME (seconds)

DISTANCE (NM)

FUEL (lbs)

-10

20000

30

1.5

280

25000

38

1.9

375

30000

50

2.6

480

0

20000

30

1.6

290

25000

39

2.1

385

30000

51

2.8

515

10

20000

32

1.8

305

25000

42

2.5

390

30000

52

3.1

530

20

20000

34

2.0

325

25000

46

2.6

410

30000

61

3.4

550

30

20000

36

2.3

340

25000

47

3.0

440

30000

62

3.9

600

 

MILITARY THRUST CLIMB CONTROL CLIMB SPEED MACH 0.90 – TIME, DISTANCE AND FUEL USED

MAXIMUM THRUST CLIMB CONTROL CLIMB SPEED MACH 0.925 – TIME, DISTANCE AND FUEL USED

Model: F104S

Engine: J79-GE-19

Fuel Grade: JP-4

Fuel Density:6.5 lb/gal

Initial Gross Weight: 22000lbs

MILITARY THRUST

MAXIMUM THRUST

ALTITUDE

DISTANCE

NM

TIME

FUEL

DISTANCE

TIME

FUEL

10000

10

1’05"

190

0.6

6"

160

15000

16

1’45"

290

1.5

12"

220

20000

20

2’15"

370

3.0

25"

320

25000

28

3’05"

470

4.0

35"

405

30000

38

4’05"

575

6.5

57"

500

35000

58

6’20

740

9.0

1’20"

600

 

MAXIMUM THRUST COMBAT CEILING

La tabella fornisce i dati di quota raggiungibile con la MAXIMUM THRUST disponendo ancora di un rateo di salita pari a 500 fpm (feet per minute) ed una velocitÓ di Mach .925.

MODEL: F-104S

ENGINE :J79-GE-19

FUEL GRADE: JP-4

FUEL DENSITY: 6.5 lb/Gal

STANDARD DAY

MACH SCHEDULE: 0.925 (best specific energy climb speed with a configurated drag index between 0 and 50)

GROSS WEIGHT (lbs) x1000

Drag Index (D.I.)

COMBAT CEILING or PRESSURE ALTITUDE (feet)

20

0

48000

40

47500

80

46500

22

0

46500

40

46000

80

44500

24

0

44500

40

44000

80

43000

26

40

42500

80

41500

28

80

40000

 

 

MILITARY THRUST COMBAT CEILING

SAME CONDITION AS MAXIMUM THRUST COMBAT CEILING EXCEPT MACH SCHEDULE

MACH SCHEDULE: 0.90

 

GROSS WEIGHT (lbs) X 1000

D.I.

COMBAT CEILING or PRESSURE ALTITUDE

20

0

39500

20

39000

40

38500

60

38000

22

0

37500

20

37000

40

36500

60

35500

24

0

36000

20

35500

40

34500

60

33000

26

20

34500

40

32500

60

31000

27

60

30000

 

 

OPTIMUM CRUISE ALTITUDE

La tabella fornisce la quota ottimale per la crociera in funzione del peso.

 

Model: F 104S

Engine: J79-GE-19

Fuel Grade: JP-4

Fuel Density: 6.5 Lb/Gal

GROSS WEIGHT (LBS)

DRAG INDEX

PRESSURE ALTITUDE O QUOTA DI CROCIERA (FEET)

18000

0

33200

20

33000

40

32600

60

32200

80

31800

100

31000

120

30200

140

29200

155

28000

24000

-

-

20

26600

40

26200

60

25900

80

25400

100

24600

120

23800

140

22600

155

21200

28000

-

-

20

23000

40

22800

60

22400

80

21800

100

21000

120

20100

140

18800

155

17400

 

PART 6 MILES PER POUND DATA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration.

TITLE

MILES PER PAUND CHARTS

 

NAUTICAL MILES PER POUND OF FUEL CHARTS

 

NAUTICAL MILES PER 1000 LB OF FUEL

In questa "part" trovate i dati relativi alla crociera nel campo delle velocitÓ subsoniche da un minimo corrispondente alla Maximum Endurance o Massima Autonomia Oraria (MAO) ad un massimo equivalente alla velocitÓ ottenuta a Military Thrust.

I dati ottenibili dai numerosi grafici , suddivisi in funzione dal Drag Index, sono molti. Partendo da un peso medio di crociera o Avarage Cruise Gross Weight e da una Pressure Altitude o Quota di Crociera, i diagrammi forniranno: le miglia percorse ogni 1000lbs di carburante consumate, i flussometri corrispondenti o consumi orari, le velocitÓ di massima autonomia oraria (MAO) o di massima autonomia chilometrica (MAK) e le velocitÓ raggiungibili a Military Thrust.

Le tabelle sotto riportate riassumono sinteticamente i valori ricavabili dai diagrami.

In particolare si Ŕ presa in considerazione il diagramma con Configuration Drag Index 40 ed un Gross Weight medio di 22000 lbs ovvero i DI e pesi pi¨ facilmente riscontrabili nell’attivitÓ operativa ed addestrativa dell’F104. In tabella si troveranno Mach Speed evidenziati in verde corrispondenti alle speed di massima autonomia kilometrica (MAK) e gialle a evidenziare la velocitÓ di massima autonomia oraria (MAO). A queste sono state aggiunte altre speed a titolo di completezza.

Infine delle tabelle sintetiche nella quale si riportano solo le velocitÓ di MAK e MAO in funzione della Configuration Drag Index e di un peso di riferimento.

 

Condition:

 

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX: 40

Model: F-104S

Avarage Cruise Gross Weight: 22000 Lbs

Standard Atmosphera

 

PRESSURE ALTITUDE o Quota di Crociera (feet)

Cruise Mach

True Air Speed o TAS (KTS)

NM/1000 LBS OF FUEL

FUEL FLOW o Consumo Orario (lbs/h)

Indicated Air Speed o IAS

Sea Level

.60

395

97

4100

400

5000

.50

325

99

3200

305

.65

420

107

3800

395

.75

485

101

4800

460

10000

.55

355

102

3400

310

.70

445

118

3500

390

.80

515

112

4600

450

15000

.63

390

118

3300

315

.75

490

131

3800

385

.85

535

122

4300

440

20000

.70

435

133

3100

325

.75

490

144

3500

370

.85

530

139

3700

400

25000

.77

460

150

3000

325

.83

500

157

3200

350

.90

540

145

3600

385

28000

.81

480

156

3050

320

.84

500

160

3150

335

.90

540

154

3400

360

 

 

Condition:

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX: 0

Model: F-104S

Avarage Cruise Gross Weight: 17500Lbs

Standard Atmosphera

In queste tabelle si riportano solo le velocitÓ di Massima Autonomia Oraria e Kilometrica in funzione del DI.

ALTITUDE

Mach di MAK

Mach di MAO

Sea Level

.57

.38

5000

.61

.43

10000

.67

.49

15000

.72

.57

20000

.77

.63

25000

.82

.71

30000

.85

.77

34000

.87

.82

 

 

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX: 80

Model: F-104S

Avarage Cruise Gross Weight: 22000Lbs

Standard Atmosphera

Altitude

Mach di MAK

Mach di MAO

Sea Level

.62

.46

5000

.66

.50

10000

.70

.55

15000

.74

.63

20000

.78

.71

25000

.82

.78

28000

.84

.81

 

 

CONFIGURATION DRAG INDEX: 120

Model: F-104S

Avarage Cruise Gross Weight: 24000Lbs

Standard Atmosphera

Altitude

Mach di MAK

Mach di MAO

Sea Level

.64

.49

5000

.68

.53

10000

.71

.60

15000

.74

.67

20000

.78

72

25000

.80

.76

 

 PART 7 DESCENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration.

TITLE

Descent Performance.

 

Descent performance:

 

-85% RPM DESCENT PERFORMANCE – 300 KNOTS IAS – TAKEOFF FLAPS AND GEAR UP

-IDLE DESCENT PERFORMANCE – 300 KNOTS IAS –FLAP AND GEAR UP

-85% RPM DESCENT PERFORMANCE – 300 KNOTS IAS – FLAPS AND GEAR UP

 

85% RPM DESCENT PERFORMANCE – 300 KNOTS IAS

In questa sezione si forniscono i dati relativi alla discesa partendo da una data quota o altitude fino a quota mare o sea level. Evidenziati in azzurro la discesa utilizzando gli aerofreni aerodinamici o speed brake, senza aerofreni in giallo.

Model: F-104S

Engine: J79-GE-19

Fuel Density: 6.5 Lb/Gal

Takeoff Flaps Extended and Gear Up

 

ALTITUDE (feet)

DISTANCE (nm)

TIME

FUEL (lbs)

5000

3

40"

25

10

2’

70

10000

7.5

1’20"

45

19.5

3’30"

115

15000

10.5

2’00"

65

28

5’00"

160

20000

14.5

2’35"

80

37.5

6’30"

200

25000

18

3’15"

95

46

7’50"

230

30000

22

3’45"

105

55.5

9’05"

260

35000

27

4’15"

115

65.5

10’20"

285

40000

30.5

4’45"

125

76

11’35"

305

Remarks:

SET 85% ENGINE RPM

HOLD 300 KNOTS IAS DURING DESCENT

AVERAGE RATE OF DESCENT:

SPEED BRAKES RETRACTED –3500 FT/MIN

SPEED BRAKE EXTENDED – 8500 FT7MIN

PART 8 LANDING

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Index items in bold face type denote illustration.

TITLE

Normal Performance with Drag Chute

Maximum Performance Landings

 

Wind Component Chart

 

Landing Speed Schedule

Landing Distance Charts

Rate of Climb Available for Go-Around

Si riportano a seguito alcune note tratte dal paragrafo NORMAL PERFORMANCE WITH DRAG CHUTE:

"Distances reflect results of flight tests with normal speed schedules for approch and touchdown, and hard wheel braking without skidding for the subequent stop. Normal performance assumes that an approach flight path slope of approximately 2.5░ is maintained by use of thrust until the 50-foot obstacle point is cleared, and the thrust is reduced smoothly during flare to just above Idle at the touchdown point……Use of the drag chute allows a high rate of deceleration durig the early portion of the ground roll: any unnecessary delay in its deployment will add considerably to the stopping distance….Use of moderate or light wheel braking will extend the landing roll beyond charted values, but will result in less wear on the brakes and tires……"

 

LANDING SPEED SCHEDUEL – Land Flaps

Nella presente tabella troverete le velocitÓ da impiegare per effettuare l’avvicinamento finale fino all’inizio del flare, approssimativamente 30 ft sopra la pista, e il campo di velocitÓ corretto per il touchdown vero e proprio. Il tutto in relazione al peso di atterraggio e la Flap Configuration (Land Flaps o Takeoff Flaps).

 

 

Condition:

 

All External Store Configuration

Model: F-104S

Engine: J79-Ge-19

Fuel Grade: JP-4

Fuel Density: 6.5 Lb/Gal

Gross Weight (lbs)

Final Approch Speed (KIAS)

Normal Touchdown Speed Range (KIAS)

Up to 15200

170

150-155

16000

174

154-160

18000

184

165-170

20000

194

174-180

22000

204

185-189

LANDING SPEED SCHEDUEL – Takeoff Flaps

Condition:

 

All External Store Configuration

As above.

Gross Weight (lbs)

Final Approch Speed (KIAS)

Minimum Touchdown Speed (KIAS)

Up to 15200

190

160

16000

194

164

18000

204

174

20000

214

184

22000

224

194

LANDING DISTANCE

La presente tabella riporta le distanze necessarie per atterrare I diagrammi presenti nel manuale forniscono inoltre le distanze in funzione della temperatura, pressure altitude, gross weight, runway wind e condizioni di pista bagnata, con ghiaccio o neve. Come riportato anche nei remarks le distanze che troverete nella tabella a seguito presuppongono un atterraggio "tirato" ovvero quando si ricerca volutamente la minima roll distance. Normalmente per˛ l’atterraggio si effettua utilizzando buona parte della pista con un continuo controllo della velocitÓ in decelerazione e pista rimanente onde "risparmiare" gomme e freni.

Si riportano alcune note presenti nel paragrafo MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE LANDINGS:

" The minimum recommended touchdown speed for maximum performance landings is 5 knots less than that used for normal operation: This will result in landing roll distances 5% less than shown for hard braking on figures….Landind with takeoff flaps may be desiderable, because of external store-fuel load combination, to maintain go-around capability, or for various other reasons……"

 

 

CONDITION:

 

Anti-Skid Brakes

Boundary Layer Control On

All External Stores Configurations

Level Runway

18-Feet Drag Chute (when deployed)

Model:F-104S

Engine:J79-Ge-19

Fuel Grade: JP-4

Fuel Density: 6.5 Lb/Gal

 

Temperature(░C) Pressure Altitude o Quota Campo (feet) Gross Weight (lbs) Ground Roll Distance (Land Flaps and Drag Chute) (feet) Ground Roll Distance (Land Flaps and No Drag Chute) (feet) Ground Roll Distance (Takeoff Flaps and Drag Chute) (feet) Total Distance To Clear a 50 ft Obstacle and Stop (feet)
15 Sea Level 17000 2650 2900 2800 5000
15 Sea Level 19000 2850 3250 3350 5400
11 2000 17000 2700 3100 3200 5200
11 2000 19000 2950 3450 3500 5500

 

Remarks:

Distances based on normal approch and landing speeds, with hard braking during stop.