ABSTRACT del bollettino n° 49

MAURITANIA: note su carsismo e speleologia     di Gilberto Calandri                     

 The Mauritania ( about 1.000.000 kmq. surface), with a prevailing desertic climate, is mainly characterized by paleozoic and prepaleozoic arenaceous formations. Scarce speleological potentialities. There are tectonic holes, some ten metres long ( Grotte de Lapin 84 Mt. ) and pseudokarstic looks ( corrosion embryonic morphologies, thermoclastic process ) with the tipical alterations of dry hot climate ( i.e. alterations of oxidation like "desert point ").

MAURITANIA: Caratteri chimico fisici di due acque carbonatiche dell'Adrar  di Gilberto Calandri                     

The chemical - phisical characters of two water points, at low altitude in sandstone of the Adrar area ( typical dry climate with precipitations of about 200 mm. year) are examined. The waters, at bicarbonate calcic characters, present important contaminations of calcium sulphate and halitic deposits: they show a remarkable concentration of chemical elements owing to the strong evaporation. In the Tergit spring, moderately termal, the sulphate - calcic element is more marked.


L'anidride carbonica in una grotta dell'Albania settentrionale    di Gilberto Calandri                     

The Juban Shpella ( 280 mt. development, 100 mt. depht ) is a reliet hollow of freatic origin with lithogenic depsits in Upper Trias limestones ( slice of Mirdita zone).  The external vegeteble covering is very scanty.   The inside microclimate is homogeneus, owing to the descending course of the hollow.    The CO2 changes from  1000 to 1600 parts per million (3-4 times more than in the outside): the microclimatic importance of the confirmed evironments is attested, also from the higher temperatures.

Attivita' 97 sulle Alpi liguri    di Gilberto Calandri e Deborah Alterisio                  

New branches have been explored in the Omega 3 Abyss (-468 mt.) in the massif of Saline (north-east bowndary of the Piaggiabella - Labassa - Fus system absorption field).  Several explorations in sectors Piancavallo - Rocca Pennina (Tanaro Valley, - Imperia province) among which the water - bearing channel (about 100 mt. long) of the Grotta della Legna.


I pozzi a neve del Monte Carmo ( prov. Savona )    di Gilberto Calandri                  

The "neviere" (ice houses) were pits or artificial hollows dug to store and trasform snow into ice to be sold afterwards.   Up to the end of the XIX century the business was very common in the Mediterranean contries.  A group of three ice houses (diameter about 6 meters), covered by "pietra a secco (dolomitic limestones of Middle Triassic), placed (altitude about 1000 mt.) in high Maremola Valley (Western Ligurian), is described in this note.   The snow pits furnisched the coast small towns about 7 km. distant.


La sorgente Volaia (Alpi Carniche, UD)    note idrogeologiche e chimico-fisiche   di Gilberto Calandri                 

The Volaia spring ( Forni Avoltri, UD ) is the main exutor of the Volaia karstic area in the Givetian-Frasnian limestones (Middle-sup. Devonian) characterized by modest superficial morphologies (Maanderkarren, Rillenkarren, etc.) and fragmentary cover at alpine prairie. The chemical, phisical measures underline the tipically bicarbonate-calcic, oligomineral facies (conductivity about 170uS, total hardness 9,5° french degrees) of the waters, that scenes to point out the modest degree of karstic evolution.   The comparison with other karstic springs of the Carnic Alps proves the litological control ( and of the vegeteble caver) on the chemism of the waters.

Le sorgenti del Frido (Massiccio del Pollino): aspetti carsici e idrogeochimici    di Gilberto Calandri                             

Frido's springs are the resurgence of the higgest karstic area (Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones) of the Pollino: about 12 kmq. surface. The karst potential of the carbonatic aquifer is about 1000 m.  The mean flow is of about 400 l/s.  This work examines the hydrogeological balance and the chemical-phisical characters (the waters are tipically bicarbonate-alkaline-calcic).



Sistemi carsici e comunicazioni sotterranee nella tradizione popolare: le Valli dianesi ed imperiesi   di Gilberto Calandri 

Dans le territoire (hysch calcaire du Crétacé sup.) de Imperia et de Diano Marina ont é té explorées qualche dizaines de petites cavites.   Au contraire il ya beaucop de folklore (contes,traditions populaires, etc.) lié à parcours et connexions souterraines entre grottes (ou entre grottes et sources) meme tré distantes.