From the Norman event

            The Normans, fierce northern people, appear in the political scene of the city around 1030, when pushed from the desire to find a permanent abode, for the services made to Sergio IV from Naples obtain the small territory of Aversa. A feud reaffirmed in 1037 by Emperor Corrado II. The leader of the group, Rainulfo Drengot, when marries Sergio IV's sister, acquires a big prestige. On his death, 1045, first Raul, then Trincanotte succeeded him; the latter and Drogone, in 1046, were reconfirmed leaders of Aversa and Puglie by Henry III respectively. In 1048, after the death of Trincanotte, Riccardo reigned for thirty years among the most decisive of the Norman government for the clashes with Leo IX and Pandolfo IV that ended with the action of vassallage to the Pope after the victory of the Normans in 1053 in the battle near the river Fortore. There the Pope, gave the Episcopal see to Aversa.
            Having got the better on Pandolfo IV, Riccardo becomes prince of Capua with his son Giordano and gentleman of Gaeta. In 1078, since Giordano changed alliance, he attracted the excommunication of Gregorio VII on Aversa. His son Riccardo II called the Bald succeeded Riccardo in 1090 that already a year after, under the regency of her mother, had to face the revolt of the Capuans that expelled him till, in 1098, he gained possession of his dominion. In the meantime he carried the seat of the princedom to Aversa. At the death of Riccardo, 1105, his brother Roberto then, in 1120, Riccardo and later Giordano succeeded and, in 1127, Roberto II that with Rainulfo, count of Avellino, sided with Innocenzo II against Ruggiero, duke of Puglia and Calabria and, from 1130, king in Palermo. In 1132 Ruggiero sure to be betrayed moves against Aversa and burns it. But repenting for the caused damages, soon reconstructed all that he had destroyed. After the subjugation and the return in 1156 of Roberto, count of Aversa, not being able any longer to face the repeated attacks he lost the county definitively. With him the dinasty of the Norman counts ended and the city took part of the monarchy of the Altavilla.
            With the death of Ruggiero and with the kingdoms of Guglielmo il Malo and Guglielmo il Buono among the pretenders, in 1189, hard struggles were till Tancredi was winner but rivalries between Naples and Aversa broke out: while Naples sided for Tancredi, Aversa was favorable to its contenders, Costanza and Henry IV of Svevia, Frederick II and their sons Manfredi, Corrado and Corradino. Since the city had always sided for the Svevian house, being won by Charles of Angiò in 1268, made part of the Angioini. In 1285, with Charles II and Roberto of Angiò, the city lived a good period: the rebuilding of the walls went on, privileges to the church of the Annunziata were granted, the church of San Ludovico was erected on the ancient church of Sant'Antonino, the Domenicani and the Celestini were taken in (the church of the Lady of Casaluce, palatine chapel of the anjoined castle was given to these), the convent of San Francesco of Assisi was widened.
            The disorders started with Giovanna I. The monarch loved to stay with the court in Aversa in the Castle of Casaluce part of which already occupied by the Celestini; just there, in 1345, his husband Andrew of Ungheria that she got married at the age of seventeen was murdered. Andrew, gone out with deceit from his room, was choked barbarously; his body dangled for three days from the portico of the castle adjacent to the apse of the church. After three years Ludovico, brother of the Hungarian, arrived in Aversa made a massacre of all the men that had participated to Andrew's murder. Aversa was a theatre of wars also under Charles of Durazzo and Ladislao of Angiò and still with Giovanna II.
            With the Aragonesi the town continued to enjoy some privileges but its history began to decline startint with the descent of Charles VIII from France, in 1494, so that in 1503 it became a peripheral center both for the depopulation due to the epidemy of plague and for the subdivision of the territory with the neighboring burghs untill in 1536 it asked Charles V of Spain for the concession of some chapters and the citizenship to repopulate and make the town flourish.
            During the Spanish domination Aversa decayed ulteriorly for two facts, of which the former interested marginally the same city, the revolt of Masaniello in Naples brought to the normality by Poderico and the plague in 1656. The latter event created much apprehension in the inhabitants of Aversa for the contagion of the illness and the loss of good part of the population. A lazaret was built outskirts San Nicola and another beside the Chiesetta of Santa Maria of the Oglio, while the convalescents were taken to Torre Bianca, to a place called "Purgatorio".
            The democrafic decrease and the economic difficulties, as well the crisis of the activities for the notables contributions poured to the State, determined a break to the development. The crisis, however, had a short duration so that, for the new democrafic increase, the new quarter of the Lemitone that followed a rigid chessboard plant with orthogonal streets on ancient paths and with a transversal diagonal only was added in the South of the town.
            Died Charles II of Asburgo, in 1700, the Neapolitans rose up against the viceroy; Aversa lived those moments with destructions and oppressions. The prisons were attacked, the archives of the town were destroyed and, for the geographical strategic position, the town was occupied by the General Count Daun. It returned to the Spanish hands only with the arrival of Charles III that stayed in town between April and May of 1734 and in 1738. Other events brought new damages: the town was deprived of the poor crop by the Commissioner of Country in order to destine it to Naples. Besides in that time the inhabitants of Aversa had to face many a time the barbaric attacks to defend the Tyrrhenian coast just because they were custodians of the Tower of the lake of Patria.
            After the brief Partenopean Republic with the return of the Borbone the greatest innovations were two, the end of the feudal system and the nationalization of the ecclesiastical goods. In the city many orders disappeared and their goods went to the State. In the March of 1813 the minor monks left the convent of the Maddalena that became a psychiatric Hospital while the Convent of San Lorenzo became a military Orphanage. Gioacchino Murat, that replaced Joseph Bonaparte, had the keys of the town of Aversa, he founded the Convitto of the Orfani of Sant'Agostino and the institution of the Banco dei Pegni.
            When in 1815 Ferdinando returned there was a discontent that brought to real rebellions. Aversa was an active center of the Carboneria. In the tumults it was tried to imprison bishop Tommasi that was later killed in 1821. The rebellions culminated with the caption of many Carbonari. On October 1st 1860, before the battle of the Volturno, Garibaldi stayed in the Golia Palace. With the Kingdom of Italy the city was joined to the province of Caserta, abolished in the fascist period, it made part later of the province of Naples.

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